spacer - blank
  Chapter 1
  Chapter 2
  Chapter 3
  Chapter 4
  Chapter 5
  Chapter 6
  Chapter 7
  Chapter 8
  Chapter 9
  Chapter 10
  Chapter 11
  Chapter 12
CCVLC Teachers/ Paolo Freire Posters
Digging Deeper: Chapter 5
The Subject Matters: Constructing Knowledge Across the Content Areas

English Language Arts: Further Reading, Key Organizations, Resources for Teaching

  • Members of the International Reading Association (IRA) include classroom teachers, reading specialists, consultants, administrators, supervisors, college teachers, researchers, psychologists, librarians, media specialists, students, and parents. IRA’s esteemed publications include The Reading Teacher, directed toward preschool, primary, and elementary school educators, and the Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, directed toward teachers of older students. IRA’s website includes links to resources on such topics as adolescent literacy and teaching for comprehension.
  • The National Council of Teachers of English Provides an array of opportunities for teachers to continue their professional growth throughout their careers and a framework for dealing with issues that affect the teaching of English. NCTE publishes three monthly journals: Language Arts, English Journal, and College English. It also publishes position papers, teaching ideas, and other documents on professional concerns such as standards; some of these are available on its website.
  • Pprofessor of English Education and Director of the Institute for Urban and MinorityEducation (IUME) at Teachers College, Columbia University, Ernest Morrell studies the relationships between language, literacy, culture and power in society. In particular, he designs and examines interventions aimed at facilitating literacies of power and freedom among urban youth, as well as strategies for developing effective literacy educators in urban contexts. He provides resources for educators in Critical Literacy and Urban Youth (New York: Routledge, 2007).
  • Lucy Calkins, education professor at Teachers College, Columbia University, is founding director of the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project. A balanced literacy advocate, Calkins is widely respected for her ideas on how to teach children to read and write, and she has inspired a generation of teachers to help the youngest children become confident writers. Her most recent book, written with Mary Ehrenworth and Christopher Lehman, is Pathways to the Common Core: Accelerating Achievement (Portsmouth, NH: Heineman, 2012).
  • The National Writing Project, established in 1974, brings teachers together in summer and school-year programs around the country. These programs are led by classroom teachers who have developed expertise for facilitating dialogues about teaching. The Writing Project’s teachers-teaching-teachers programs serve over 100,000 teachers annually at 189 project sites across the country.
  • In For a Better World: Reading and Writing for Social Action (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001), Katherine Bomer and Randy Bomer offer guidance for teachers in implementing reading and writing workshops. Specifically, they focus on developing critical literacy while also developing democratic, socially just classrooms.

Mathematics: Further Reading, Key Organizations, Resources for Teaching

  • For more than 75 years, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the largest professional association of mathematics educators in the world, has been dedicated to improving the teaching and learning of mathematics. NCTM provides professional development opportunities through annual, regional, and leadership conferences and publishes journals, books, videos, and software.
  • The Algebra Project, developed by civil rights leader Bob Moses, is a national network of sites striving to improve mathematics achievement for African American and other minority students who have not been reached by existing efforts at education reform. The Algebra Project works through materials development, teacher training, peer education, and school-community partnerships. The project is described in Moses’s book, Radical Equations: Civil Rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001), and it can found online at www.algebra.org/.
  • Deborah Schifter, senior scientist with the Education Development Center in Newton, Massachusetts, has written helpful accounts of teachers who use constructivist approaches to mathematics. Her book Reconstructing Mathematics Education: Stories of Teachers Meeting the Challenge of Reform with Catherine Twomey Fosnot (New York: Teachers College Press, 1993), provides narratives from elementary teachers who are shifting their mathematics curriculum away from traditional lessons and focusing on understanding children’s mathematical thinking.
  • Math for America is a national non-profit organization committed to improving mathematics education in public schools. Even if you are not a fellow of the organization, the website provides classroom as well as professional resources for math teachers.
  • Marilyn Burns, a math educator, has published numerous books and other resources for classroom teachers. Her work focuses on student-centered math lessons that lead to mathematical understanding. About Teaching Mathematics (Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications, 2007) is an excellent foundational resource for math teachers. Burns also has a website that lists her other publications and includes additional resources for teachers.

History/Social Studies: Further Reading, Key Organizations, Resources for Teaching

  • The National Council for the Social Studies is an umbrella organization for elementary, secondary, and college teachers of history, geography, economics, political science, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and law-related education. Over the years, it has played a role in articulating performance expectations for social studies in the early grades, middle grades, and high school years.
  • Linda Symcox, historian and teacher educator at California State University at Long Beach, has written a compelling history of the controversy surrounding the National History Standards. The book, Under Fire: The National History Standards in the Culture Wars (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999), provides both an insider’s view and a cultural and political analysis of the school curriculum.
  • Professors Sam Wineburg, Daisy Martin, and Chauncey Monte-Sano focus their work on teaching students to think historically. In their book, Reading Like a Historian: Teaching Literacy in Middle and High School History Classrooms (New York: Teachers College Press, 2011), the authors lead teachers through eight units (e.g., American Revolution, Civil Rights Movement), which include core questions, key historical thinking concepts, and teaching strategies.
  • Teaching History offers many resources for history teachers in elementary, middle, and high schools. The website includes many teaching resources, such as teaching guides and strategies for working with English Learners, as well as information about historical content. It is also possible to download primary sources and to search for history-focused field trips in your area on the site.
  • The Zinn Education Project provides a plethora of resources for educators who are striving to teach history in an honest, critical, and engaging manner. The Zinn Education Project began with Howard Zinn’s A Peoples History of the United States (New York: Harper Collins, 2003) but now includes additional books, as well as lesson plans, posters, and numerous other resources.
  • Facing History and Ourselves is a nonprofit organization that offers an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to teaching citizenship. It connects history to the day-to-day experiences of students by revealing the corrupting forces of violence and hate, and the power of ordinary people in shaping history. Facing History’s resource center has a lending library of relevant books, periodicals, and videos.

Science: Further Reading, Key Organizations, Resources for Teaching

  • The National Science Teachers Association mission is to “promote excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all.” NSTA offers various curricular resources including, for example, a complete curriculum that was developed and tested to meet the national science education standards.
  • Michigan State University professor Angela Calabrase Barton studies science education. Her books include Teaching Science for Social Justice (New York: Teachers College Press, 2003), which was written with Jason L. Ermer, Tanahia L. Burkett, and Margery D. Osborne and reports on six years of research on after-school science programs situated in an urban context.
  • Bryan Brown is a professor at Stanford University. He studies science teaching, science literacy, and discourse in science classrooms. His “content-first” approach to teaching science allows students to access high-level science content through their everyday language before teaching the difficult jargon of science classrooms. 
  • Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California-Berkeley offers a collection of hands-on science activities and materials for preschool through high school that emphasize the “learning-by-doing” approach pioneered at the Hall. FOSS is an elementary-school science program with 27 modules that incorporates hands-on inquiry and interdisciplinary projects, building on recent advances in the understanding of how children think and learn.
  • The Exploratorium is a museum in San Francisco, California, and its website has many resources for teachers of all grade levels. Science videos, activities, links to other science websites, and recommendations for science teaching books are just a few of the many resources made available online.
    spacer - blank
About the New Edition About the Authors Digging Deeper Tools for Critique