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  Chapter 5
  Chapter 6
  Chapter 7
  Chapter 8
  Chapter 9
  Chapter 10
  Chapter 11
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CCVLC Teachers/ Paolo Freire Posters
Digging Deeper: Chapter 6
Instruction: Teaching and Learning Across the Content Areas

Further Reading

  • John Bransford, professor of education at the University of Washington, developed the Jasper Woodbury problem-solving series in mathematics, the Scientists in Action series, and the Little Planet Literacy series. Bransford is also coeditor with Ann Brown and Rodney Cocking of How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2000), one of the best books available on learning.
  • The research of professors Ann Brown (deceased) and Joseph Campione focuses on transforming classrooms from worksites where students perform assigned tasks under the management of teachers into communities of learning and interpretation, where students take charge of their own learning. Children’s Learning in Laboratory and Classroom Contexts (New York: Routledge, 2007), edited by Campione, Kathleen Metz, and Annemarie Sullivan Palinscar offers a collection of essays that build on and extend Brown and Campione’s work.
  • The work of Jerome Bruner, research professor of psychology and senior research fellow in law at New York University, investigates how cognitive psychology and child development can inform teaching so that all children can become highly competent and fully participating members of their cultures. Books you might want to read include The Process of Education (1960), Toward a Theory of Instruction (1966), The Relevance of Education (1971), Acts of Meaning (1990), and The Culture of Education (1996)—all published by Harvard University Press.
  • Among Harvard education professor Howard Gardner’s many publications are books that present his own theories of multiple intelligence (e.g., Frames of Mind [New York: Basic Books, 1983, 1993]), offer comprehensive overviews of intelligence (e.g., Intelligence, with Mindy L. Kornhaber and Warren K. Wake [Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace, 1995]), and address the implications of cognitive psychology for teaching (e.g., Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice [New York: Basic Books, 1993]).
  • Deborah Meier was principal of one of the most remarkable public schools in the country, Central Park East (CPE) in East Harlem for 20 years and then became the founder and principal of the Mission Hill School in Boston. In her book based on the CPE experience, The Power of Their Ideas: Lessons for America from a Small School in Harlem (Boston: Beacon Press, 1995), Meier argues for teaching that connects learning to real-world activities.
  • Luis Moll, an education professor at the University of Arizona, studies learning in the lives of working-class Mexican American students and their families. Moll developed the concept of “funds of knowledge,” about which he has written extensively. He has also edited or co-edited particularly helpful collections of writing by leading sociocultural theorists; these include, among others, Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications of Sociohistorical Psychology (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992) and Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households and Schools (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005).
  • Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey have written multiple books for teachers, primarily about literacy instruction. One book that can be used in any content area and grade level is Better Learning through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2008). Fisher and Frey also have a website with additional resources.

Websites to Explore

  • Association for Constructivist Teaching, housed at Old Dominion University, is dedicated to the growth of all educators and students through identification and dissemination of effective constructivist practices in both the professional cultures of teachers and the learning environments of children. The association membership is open to anyone who is interested in the field of education. The association’s journal, The Constructivist, is also available online.
  • Inside Teaching: A Living Archive of Practice is an online project of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Learnig. In this archive, teachers and teacher educators have uploaded videos of lessons, lesson plans, student work, and reflections on teaching and learning. The multimedia archive reflects a broad range of topics and grade levels. It is a great place to see (not just read about) excellent teaching.
  • What Kids Can Do (WKCD) is a national nonprofit focused on celebrating the power of what young people can accomplish when given the opportunities and supports they need and what they can contribute when we take their voices and ideas seriously. The organization’s website provides local stories, books, and other resources, all of which place youth voices at their center.

Resources for Teaching

  • Differentiation Central has information about and resources for differentiating instruction at all grade levels K-12. The resources page includes videos, lesson plans, podcasts, articles, and an annotated bibliography on reaching all learners in a differentiated classroom.
  • Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement (Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers, 2007) by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis provides detailed lessons and examples of reading comprehension instruction. The second edition includes a section on reading comprehension in the content areas, particularly science and social studies.
  • Educator Chip Wood is the author of Yardsticks: Children in the Classroom Ages 4-14 (Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children, 2007), among other publications. Yardsticks provides a comprehensive developmental profile of students at every age and includes curricular and pedagogical suggestions for developmentally appropriate instruction.
  • Hosted by New York Public Media, Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning is an interactive site that offers demonstration lessons, interviews with researchers and teachers and a good list of resources.
  • The Youth Learn Initiative supports youth development professionals and educators in their efforts to use media and technology tools to create exciting learning environments. The initiative’s website offers helpful suggestions for encouraging collaboration and sharing through classroom community-building.
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